What is Endomeriosis?
Endometriosis is the painful condition in which functioning endometrium (inner layer of uterus) present outside the uterine cavity.
Most common site is the ovary. Other sites are fallopian tube, ligament that support the uterus, the space between the uterus and rectum, the space between the uterus and bladder, the lining of the pelvic cavity. Rarer sites are intestine, rectum, bladder, vagina, cervix, vulva, abdominal surgical scar.
Symptom of Endomeriosis
The following are the most common symptom of endomeriosis, but each women may experience symptoms differently or some may exhibit no symptom at all. Pelvic or abdominal pain maybe cyclical and noncyclical. Eventhough triple dysmenorrhoea (pain before, during and after cycles) is diagnostic of endometriosis, it can also present as non cyclical pain. The pain from endometriosis is sometimes called “killer cramps”. It is important to note that amount of pain a women experiences is not necessarily related to the severity of the disease. Some women with severe endometriosis may experience no pain, while others with milder form of disease may have severe pain or other symptom.
Other symptoms occurring in conjuction with menstruation includes Pain during micturition , pain during defecation, pain in previous scar site during periods, painful intercourse, cyclical hematuria (bladder endometriosis) ,cyclical breathlessness and cyclical chest pain (catamenial pnemothorax-pleural endometriosis.
When endometriosis involves ovaries ,the cyst is called as endometrioma.
Surrounding tissues become inflammed eventually developing scar tissues and adhesions to adjacent structures causing pelvic tissues and organs to stick to each. Although exact cause of endometriosis is not certain, most possible explanation includes retrograde menstruation.
The main important complication of endometriosis is impaired infertility. Diagnostic modalities include are history & pelvic examination, ultrasound examination, MRI. LAPROSCOPY IS THE GOLD STANDARD FOR DIAGNOSIS OF ENDOMETRIOSIS.
There is no known cure for endometriosis, treatment usually includes medical management (OCP, GnRH, dienogest, LNG), surgical management (adhesiolysis, removal of endometriotic cyst, if completed family -hysterectomy with removal of fallopian tube and ovaries).